Abstract: Aflatoxicosis is among the major cause of economic losses in poultry production. Aflatoxins are a group of hepatotoxic compounds produced by the fungus of Aspergillus sps. when growing on feedstuffs. Aflatoxins are hepatotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic fungal toxin which is capable of producing diseases in farm animals as well as poultry. There are four primary aflatoxins: aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). Among these AFB1 is the most toxic aflatoxin. Aflatoxicosis in poultry is characterized by decreased growth rate, poor feed conversion, immunosuppression, passage of undigested food in the dropping, anemia, decrease egg production in layers quantitatively and qualitatively, decrease hatchability, embryonic mortality, reduced fertility due to decrease testicular weight, decrease semen volume and sometimes there may be lamness, ataxia, convulsions & death. In humans being acute aﬂatoxicosis is manifested by vomiting, abdominal pain, pulmonary edema, coma, convulsions, and death with cerebral edema and fatty involvement of the liver, kidney and heart.
Keywords: Aflatoxin, Poultry, Hepatotoxic. Title: Aflatoxicosis in Poultry Author: Sakshi Tiwari, Vikash Sharma, Amrender Nath Tiwari, Amit Shukla ISSN 2349-7823 International Journal of Recent Research in Life Sciences (IJRRLS) Paper Publications
A Study on Isolation, Partial Characterisation and antifungal activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens from soil
Abstract: Pseudomonas fluorescens are organisms which are abundant in soil and influence plant by growth promotion and disease control. Of 50 samples, thirty isolated samples obtained from soil was partially characterized as Pseudomonas fluorescens. They were classified into 5 biovars BV1,II,III,IV and V . Among the Biovars BV II is the most abundant (26.6%)followed by BV IV(23.3%),BV I(20%),BV V(16.6%) and BV III (13.3%)All of them produced siderophores in CAS medium.Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations(MIC) of the two heavy metals) and two antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) were observed as shown in table 3.All biovars showed resistance to 2 heavy metals(Lead and mercury and 2 antibiotics(Penicillin and Streptomycin). So they can be used in soil contaminated with heavy metals and also in the presence of antibiotics. Strain BV V was found to be the most resistant strain and was used for further studies. Four basal media supplemented with different concentration of iron, were employed to study the effect of iron and different organic carbon sources on siderophore production in Pseudomonas fluorescens. The highest siderophore production was obtained in KB medium(24.3 µM) and the lowest production was in glycerol medium(2.45 µM) with no Iron added. The standard KB medium without added iron permitted the synthesis of greater amount of siderophores. Fusarium. All the isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens inhibited the pathogenic fungi Fusarium isolated from soil. Both the culture containing cells and cell free extract shown inhibition of Fusarium. Among broth cultures Pseudomonas fluorescens BV III showed more inhibition (63.3%) on third day of inoculation.Cell free extract of Pseudomonas fluorescens BV V on third day of incubation showed more inhibition (67.7%)than culture containing cells(46.6%). Special analysis of crude extract of culture filtrate, revealed the production of siderophores by fluorescent Pseudomonas. The maximum absorption was found it to be at 373nm. Further studies are needed to confirm the specific molecule which causes inhibition in Pseudomonas fluorescens.
Keywords: Antibiotics, Biovars, CAS medium, Cell free extract Fusarium, Heavy metals, MIC, Pseudomonas fluorescens ,Siderophore. Title: A Study on Isolation, Partial Characterisation and antifungal activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens from soil Author: Smitha Mathews International Journal of Recent Research in Life Sciences (IJRRLS) ISSN 2349-7823 Paper Publications
Abstract: Johne’s disease (Paratuberculosis) is a chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). MAP is a subspecies of M. avium, effects wide range of animals including domestic cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloes, camelids and wild ruminants resulting in progressive and chronic enteritis known as Johne’s disease. Clinically indected animals show watery diarrhea, emaciation and eventually death due to lack of effective treatment. Clinically as well as subclinically infected animals shed bacteria in feces and milk. Fecal-oral rout is the main rout of transmission. It is economically very important disease in livestock due to decrease in milk yield, working efficiency and culling of infected animals. Enlargement of mesenteric lymph node and transverse corrugation in intestine is characterstic finding in post-mortem. Strategies to control this disease include improved management practices, testing and culling and vaccination.
Keywords: Johne’s disease, diarrhoea, corrugation. Title: Johne’s Disease: A Review Article Author: Vikash Sharma, Lalit, Sakshi Tiwari International Journal of Recent Research in Life Sciences (IJRRLS) ISSN 2349-7823 Paper Publications
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