Abstract:In the present future, there will be numerous ships steaming the seas split between conventional and Autonomous ships. Both type of ships is operating in various areas of the globe with various degree of security. Due to the novel of the autonomous ships, the effect of cyber security is not clear yet (K. Jones et al, 2016). The principle reasons are the lack of and inability of assessing the risks and the vulnerabilities of autonomous ships (Allianz Global Corporate and Specialty, 2016). The issue of cyber security might be an added value to the autonomous ships and a reason for a fast spreading and might be a derailment factor, this will be determined in the next few years, depending on technology which intended to be used in communication and also in the regulatory frame work, and finally on the amount of awareness and training. This paper aims to predict, in an exploratory approach the risks and vulnerabilities which may affect autonomous ships in case of cyberattacks. To predict cyber risk for autonomous ships sampling the existing cyber risk, the results will not be accurate but might be a base for future researches. Keywords:Cybersecurity - Autonomous ship – Cyberattacks – cyber awareness – Threat scenarios.
Title: The impact of cybersecurity on the future of Autonomous ships Author:Kazem Said Mahmoud Agamy ISSN 2350-1049 International Journal of Recent Research in Interdisciplinary Sciences (IJRRIS) Paper Publications
A History of Gusii Women in the Informal Economy in Colonial Kenya
Abstract: Defining informal economy is as problematic as documenting its historical evolution. Many writers tend to present the view that informal economy, where most women are employed, is a post-colonial phenomenon. Others treat informal economy as frozen in time (lacking evolution and transformation) and, by so doing, fail to appreciate the transformation and evolution of women in the informal economy over time. Yet others fail to acknowledge the differences experienced by women in the informal economy in varying spaces. By focusing on the history of Gusii women in the informal economy, this chapter attempts to depart from the norm whereby scholars tend to examine informal economy as static, homogenous and post-colonial. Keywords: Gusii, Women, Informal Economy, Colonial.
Title: A History of Gusii Women in the Informal Economy in Colonial Kenya Author: Mildred Nyaboke Ayuka, Pauline Moraa Masita ISSN 2350-1049 International Journal of Recent Research in Interdisciplinary Sciences (IJRRIS) Paper Publications
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